Analysis of health warning signs on alcoholic beverage packaging using the eye-tracking method


eye-tracking technique
alcoholic beverages warnings
warnings signs
perception of warning signs


Producers must mark packaging with various warning signs, including the harm of alcohol consumption. The most popular warnings inform about the required consumer age (e.g., “alcohol only for adults”), consequences of drunk driving (e.g., “don’t drink and drive”), and advisable abstaining from drinking during pregnancy. The study’s main objective was to analyse the perception of warning signs on alcoholic beverage packaging using the eye-tracking method, which allows the observation and measurement of the focus of study participants. The research positively verified the ability to use the eye-tracking method to assess the perception of warning signs. The obtained research results were used to investigate the perception of warning signs placed on glass beer bottles. The study showed that the presence of pictograms (i.e., graphic symbols) does not guarantee the focus of potential buyers’ attention. The obtained results clearly indicated that the efficiency of perception results from many elements, including the sign’s placement, size and colours, a connection between graphic and textual information, and the colour of the packaging material and label. The study’s results can be useful for non-profit organisations and other entities responsible for the social marketing of alcoholic beverages. Moreover, the study could be seen as a starting point for researchers, beverage packaging industry representatives, and policymakers to test, introduce and promote packaging innovation solutions. The research filled the gap by providing a better understanding of the effectiveness of warning signs on alcoholic beverage packaging and furnished clues as to how alcohol stakeholders and public institutions should react to enhance alcohol health literacy in society.

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Copyright (c) 2024 Agnieszka Cholewa-Wójcik, Agnieszka Kawecka, Małgorzata Jarossová, Joanna Wiażewicz